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Virtual Hosts

  • Virtual Host documentation
  • Virtual Host examples
  • "The term Virtual Host refers to the practice of running more than one web site (such as and on a single machine. Virtual hosts can be "IP-based", meaning that you have a different IP address for every web site, or "name-based", meaning that you have multiple names running on each IP address. The fact that they are running on the same physical server is not apparent to the end user."
  • VirtualHost directive
    • Contains directives that apply only to a specific hostname or IP address
    • Each Virtual Host must correspond to a different IP address, different port number, or a different host name for the server
    • VirtualHost directive only valid in server config context, not allowed to next virtualhosts.

  DocumentRoot "/www/docs/"
  ErrorLog "logs/"
  TransferLog "logs/"


  • mod_proxy - Multi-protocol proxy/gateway server
  • A reverse proxy is activated using the ProxyPass directive or the [P] flag to the RewriteRule directive
  • Different from a forward proxy which is the standard thing you already know: make my ip look to the website as if it's the server's ip. Here it's make the server's ip look like the proxy's ip

Reverse Proxy directives

  • <Proxy> - Container for directives applied to proxied resources. Directives placed in <Proxy> sections apply only to matching proxied content.
  • ProxyPass - Maps remote servers into the local server URL-space
    • This directive allows remote servers to be mapped into the space of the local server.
    • The local server does not act as a proxy in the conventional sense but appears to be a mirror of the remote server.
    • The local server is often called a reverse proxy or gateway.
    • The path is the name of a local virtual path
    • url is a partial URL for the remote server and cannot include a query string.
    • You can also use a UNIX socket as a valid destination by prepending with unix:
  • ProxyPassReverse - When the backend server redirects to another backend url, it will rewrite that to look like proxy url
ProxyPass         "/mirror/foo/" ""
ProxyPassReverse  "/mirror/foo/" ""
ProxyPassReverseCookieDomain  ""  ""
ProxyPassReverseCookiePath  "/"  "/mirror/foo/"

rstudio.conf example

    <VirtualHost *:80>

      <Proxy *>
        Allow from localhost

      ProxyPass        /rstudio/ http://localhost:8787/
      ProxyPassReverse /rstudio/ http://localhost:8787/
      RedirectMatch permanent ^/rstudio$ /rstudio/



  • RewriteEngine on
    • Enables or disables runtime rewriting engine
    • Note that rewrite configurations are not inherited by virtual hosts. This means that you need to have a RewriteEngine on directive for each virtual host in which you wish to use rewrite rules.
  • RewriteBase
DocumentRoot "/var/www/"
AliasMatch "^/myapp" "/opt/myapp-1.2.3"
<Directory "/opt/myapp-1.2.3">
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase "/myapp/"
    RewriteRule "^index\.html$"  "welcome.html"
  • RewriteRule
    • Defines rules for the rewriting engine
    • Syntax: RewriteRule Pattern Substitution [flags]


  • RedirectMatch
    • Sends an external redirect based on a regular expression match of the current URL
    • syntax RedirectMatch [status] regex URL